IVF

MALE INFERTILITY

What is male infertility?

Male infertility is a mans inability to produce any sperm or to produce sperm that is of adequate quality to fertilize a female egg, Male infertility is a factor in 40% of infertility cases. As per the WHO estimated 60 to 80 million couples worldwide currently suffer from infertility.

How common is male infertility

In an around 10-15% of total men are considered to be as infertile according to a research. In most cases, hormonal imbalance, genetical factors or blockage of sperm movement contributes to male infertility and a condition known as Azoospermia. How the testicles functions is one of the most common cause contributing to the male infertility. In an around 50% cases, the exact cause of the male infertility cannot be determined. Unhealthy Lifestyle and chronic health conditions can also be the cause of lack of sperm.

Causes of Male infertility

Symptoms

  • Lumps in the testicles
  • Small volume of fluid ejaculation
  • Pain in the testicles
  • Trouble ejaculating
  • Small and hard testicles

Test

Most cause of infertility are related to sperm ,As per the WHO Guidelines trained expert check sperm count ,motility, morphology, DFI ( DNA Fragmentation index), Hormone test.

Normal seminal parameter

Semen Parameter Lower reference limit
SPERM VOLUME 1.4 ml
SPERM CONCENTRETION 16 million/ml
TOTAL SPERM COUNT 39 million/ml
TOTAL MOTILITY (PR+NP %) 42%
SPERM PROGRESSIVE MOTILITY (PR) 30%
SPERM MORPHOLOGY 4%

( As Per the WHO Criteria 2020 )

Azoospermia

Azoospermia means absence of sperm from the fluid ejaculated during orgasm (semen).

There are two types of azoospermia:

A) Obstructive Azoospermia

B) Non-Obstructive Azoospermia

Obstructive Azoospermia

Obstructive azoospermia (OA) is defined as the absence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate despite normal spermatogenesis.

Diagnosis

Physical examination

Determination of hormone levels

(FSH, LH, testosterone)

semen analysis

biopsy

Non-Obstructive Azoospermia

Non‐obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is defined as no sperm in the ejaculate due to failure of spermatogenesis and is the most severe form of male infertility

Male infertility treatment

Male infertility divides into 3 parts

  • Surgical
    • Microsurgical vasovasostomy
  • Non-surgical
    • Rectal probe
    • Electro ejaculation
    • Penile vibratory stimulation
    • hyperprolactinemia
  • Unknown causes
    • IUI
    • IVF
    • ICSI
    • TESE,PESA&MESA

Conclusion

Male infertility the global health issue which has not been researched to truly understand its magnitude and prevalence this information provides insight in to where the greatest into fundamental etiology and treatment.

As a society we must reduce blockades from stigmas correlated with infertility due to devout and cultural beliefs

We must create a globally accepted social demographic calculation in order to acknowledge the generally and magnitude of male infertility.

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